# Randomness in Haskell

01 Oct 2016Randomness is a constant nuisance point for Haskell beginners who may be coming from a language like Python or R. While in Python you can just get away with something like:

```
In [2]: numpy.random.rand(3)
Out[2]: array([ 0.61426175, 0.05309224, 0.38861597])
```

or in R:

```
> runif(3)
[1] 0.49473012 0.68436352 0.04135914
```

In Haskell, the situation is more complicated. It’s not too much worse when you get the hang of things, but it’s certainly one of those things that throws beginners for a loop - and for good reason.

In this article I want to provide a simple guide, with examples, for getting started and becoming comfortable with randomness in Haskell. Hopefully it helps!

I’m writing this from a hotel during my partner’s birthday, so it’s being slapped together very rapidly with a kind of get-it-done attitude. If anything is unclear or you have any questions, feel free to shoot me a ping and I’ll try to improve it when I get a chance.

## Randomness on Computers in General

Check out the R code I posted previously. If you just open R and type
`runif(3)`

on your machine, then odds are you’ll get a different triple of
numbers than what I got above.

These numbers are being generated based on R’s global *random number generator*
(RNG), which, absent any fiddling by the user, is initialized as needed based
on the system time and ID of the R process. So: if you open up the R
interpreter and call `runif(3)`

, then behind the scenes R will initialize the
RNG based on the time and process ID, and then use a particular algorithm to
generate random numbers based on that initialized value (called the ‘seed’).

These numbers aren’t truly random - they’re *pseudo-random*, which means
they’re generated by a deterministic algorithm such that the resulting values
*appear* random over time. The default algorithm used by R, for example, is
the famous Mersenne Twister, which you can verify as follows:

```
> RNGkind()
[1] "Mersenne-Twister" "Inversion"
```

You can also set the seed yourself in R, using the `set.seed`

function. Then
if you type something like `runif(3)`

, R will use this initialized RNG rather
than coming up with its own seed based on the time and process ID. Setting
the seed allows you to reproduce operations involving pseudo-random numbers;
just re-set the seed and perform the same operations again:

```
> set.seed(42)
> runif(3)
[1] 0.9148060 0.9370754 0.2861395
> set.seed(42)
> runif(3)
[1] 0.9148060 0.9370754 0.2861395
```

(It’s good practice to *always* initialize the RNG using some known seed before
running an experiment, simulation, and so on.)

So the big thing to notice here, in any case, is that R uses a *global* RNG.
It maintains the state of this RNG implicitly and behind the scenes. When you
type `runif(3)`

, R consults this implicit RNG, gives you your pseudo-random
numbers based on its value, and *updates* the global RNG without you needing to
worry about any of this plumbing yourself. The same is generally true for
randomness in most programming languages - Python, C, Ruby, and so on.

## Explicit RNG Management

But let’s come back to Haskell. Haskell, unlike R or Python, is
*purely-functional*. State, or effects in general, are *never* implicit in the
same way that R updates its global RNG. We need to either explicitly pass
around a RNG ourselves, or at least allow some explicit monad to do it for us.

Passing around a RNG manually is annoying, so in practice this means everyone
uses a monad to handle RNG state. This means that **one needs to be
comfortable working with monadic code in order to practically use random
numbers in Haskell**, which presents a big hurdle for beginners who may have
been able to ignore monads thus far on their Haskell journey.

Let’s see what I mean by all of this by going through a few examples. Make sure you have stack installed, and then grab a few libraries that we’ll make use of in the remainder of this post:

```
$ stack install random mwc-random primitive
```

### The Really Annoying Method - Manual RNG Management

Let me demonstrate the simplest conceptual method for dealing with random numbers: manually grabbing and passing around a RNG without involving any monads whatsoever.

First, open up GHCi:

```
$ stack ghci
```

And let’s also get some quick preliminaries out of the way:

```
Prelude> :set prompt "> "
> import System.Random
> import Control.Monad
> let runif_pure = randomR (0 :: Double, 1)
> let runif n = replicateM n (randomRIO (0 :: Double, 1))
> let set_seed = setStdGen . mkStdGen
```

We’ll first use the basic `System.Random`

module for illustration. To
initialize a RNG, we can make one by providing the `mkStdGen`

function
with an integer seed:

```
> let rng = mkStdGen 42
> rng
43 1
```

We can use this thing to generate random numbers. A simple function to do that
is `randomR`

, which will generate pseudo-random values for some ordered
type in a given range. We’ll use the `runif_pure`

alias for it that we defined
previously, just to make things look similar to the previous R example and also
emphasize that this one is a pure function:

```
> runif_pure rng
(1.0663729393723398e-2,2060101257 2103410263)
```

You can see that we got back a pair of values, the first element of which is
our random number `1.0663729393723398e-2`

. Cool. Let’s try to generate
another:

```
> runif_pure rng
(1.0663729393723398e-2,2060101257 2103410263)
```

Hmm. We generated the same number again. This is because the value of `rng`

hasn’t changed - it’s still the same value we made via `mkStdGen 42`

. Since
we’re using the same random number generator to generate a pseudo-random value,
we get the same pseudo-random value.

If we want to make *new* random numbers, then we need to use a different
generator. And the second element of the pair returned from our call to
`runif_pure`

is exactly that - an updated RNG that we can use to generate
additional random numbers.

Let’s try that all again, using the generator we get back from the first function call as an input to the second:

```
> let (x, rng1) = runif_pure rng
> x
1.0663729393723398e-2
> let (y, rng2) = runif_pure rng1
> y
0.9827538369038856
```

Success!

I mean.. sort of. It works and all, and it *does* constitute a general-purpose
solution. But manually binding updated RNG states to names and swapping those
in for new values is still pretty annoying.

You could also generate an infinite list of random numbers using the
`randomRs`

function and just take from it as needed, but you still
probably need to manage that list to make sure you don’t re-use any numbers.
You kind of trade off managing the RNG for managing an infinite list of random
numbers, which isn’t much better.

### The Less-Annoying Method - Get A Monad To Do It

The good news is that we can offload the job of managing the RNG state to a monad. I won’t actually explain how that works in detail here - I think most people facing this problem are initially more concerned with getting something working, rather than deeply grokking monads off the bat - so I’ll just claim that we can get a monad to handle the RNG state for us, and that will hopefully (mostly) suffice for now.

Still rolling with the `System.Random`

module for the time being, we’ll use the
`runif`

alias for the `randomRIO`

function that we defined previously to
generate some new random numbers:

```
> runif 3
[0.9873934690803106,0.3794382930121829,0.2285653405908732]
> runif 3
[0.7651878964537555,0.2623159001635825,0.7683468476766804]
```

Simpler! Notice we haven’t had to do anything with a generator manually - we
just ask for random numbers and then get them, just like in R. And if we want
to set the value of the RNG being used here, we can use the `setStdGen`

function with an RNG that we’ve already created. Here let’s just use the
`set_seed`

alias we defined earlier, to mimic R’s `set.seed`

function:

```
> set_seed 42
> runif 3
[1.0663729393723398e-2,0.9827538369038856,0.7042944187434987]
> set_seed 42
> runif 3
[1.0663729393723398e-2,0.9827538369038856,0.7042944187434987]
```

So things are similar to how they work in R here - we have a global RNG of
sorts, and we can set its state as desired using the `set_seed`

function. But
since this is Haskell, the effects of creating and updating the generator state
*must still be explicit*. And they *are* explicit - it’s just that they’re
explicit in the **type** of `runif`

:

```
> :t runif
runif :: Int -> IO [Double]
```

Note that `runif`

returns a value that’s wrapped up in `IO`

. This is how we
indicate explicitly - at the type level - that something is being done with the
generator in the background. `IO`

is a monad, and it happens to be the thing
that’s dealing with the generator for us here.

What this means for you, the practitioner, is that you can’t just mix values of
some type `a`

with values of type `IO a`

willy-nilly. You may be writing a
function `f`

with type `[Double] -> Double`

, where the input list of doubles is
intended to be randomly-generated. But if you just go ahead and generate a
list `xs`

of random numbers, they’ll have type `IO [Double]`

, and you’ll stare
in confusion at some type error from GHC when you try to apply `f`

to `xs`

.

Here’s what I mean. Take the example of just generating some random numbers and then summing them up. First, in R:

```
> xs = runif(3)
> sum(xs)
[1] 1.20353
```

And now in Haskell, using the same mechanism we tried earlier:

```
> let xs = runif 3
> :t xs
xs :: IO [Double]
> sum xs
<interactive>:16:1:
No instance for (Num [Double]) arising from a use of ‘sum’
In the expression: sum xs
In an equation for ‘it’: it = sum xs
```

This means that to deal with the numbers we generate, we have to treat them a little differently than we would in R, or compared to the situation where we were managing the RNG explicitly in Haskell. Concretely: if we use a monad to manage the RNG for us, then the numbers we generate will be ‘tagged’ by the monad. So we need to do something or other to make those tagged numbers work with ‘untagged’ numbers, or functions designed to work with ‘untagged’ numbers.

This is where things get confusing for beginners. Here’s how we could add up some random numbers in GHCi:

```
> xs <- runif 3
> sum xs
1.512024272587933
```

We’ve used the `<-`

symbol to bind the result of `runif 3`

to the name `xs`

,
rather than `let xs = ...`

. But this is sort of particular to running code in
GHCi; if you try to do this in a generic Haskell function, you’ll possibly wind
up with some more weird type errors. To do this in regular ol’ Haskell code,
you need to both use `<-`

-style binding **and** also acknowledge the ‘tagged’
nature of randomly-generated values.

The crux is that, when you’re using a monad to generate random numbers in
Haskell, you need to separate *generating them* from *using them*. Rather than
try to explain what I mean here precisely, let’s rely on example, and implement
a simple Metropolis sampler for illustration.

## A Metropolis Sampler

The Metropolis algorithm will help you approximate expectations over certain probability spaces. Here’s how it works. Picture yourself strolling around some bumpy landscape; you want to walk around it in such a fashion that you visit regions of it with probability proportional to their altitude. To do that, you can repeatedly:

- Pick a random point near your current location.
- Compare your present altitude to the altitude of that point you picked. Calculate a probability based on their ratio.
- Flip a coin where the chance of observing a head is equal to that probability. If you get a head, move to the location you picked. Otherwise, stay put.

Let’s implement it in Haskell, using a monadic random number generator to do
so. This time we’re going to use `mwc-random`

- a more industrial-strength
randomness library that you can confidently use in production code.

`mwc-random`

uses Marsaglia’s multiply-with-carry algorithm to generate
pseudo-random numbers. It requires you to explicitly create and pass a RNG to
functions that need to generate random numbers, but it uses a monad to *update*
the RNG state itself. This winds up being pretty nice; let’s dive in to see.

Create a module called `Metropolis.hs`

and get some imports out of the way:

```
module Metropolis where
import Control.Monad
import Control.Monad.Primitive
import System.Random.MWC as MWC
import System.Random.MWC.Distributions as MWC
```

### Step One

The first thing we want to do is implement is point (1) from above:

Pick a random point near your current location.

We’ll just use a standard normal distribution of the appropriate dimension to do this - we just want to take a location, perturb it, and return the perturbed location.

```
propose :: [Double] -> Gen RealWorld -> IO [Double]
propose location rng = traverse (perturb rng) location where
perturb gen x = MWC.normal x 1 gen
```

So at finer detail: we’re walking over the coordinates of the current location
and generating a normally-distributed value centered at each coordinate. The
`MWC.normal`

function will do this for a given mean and standard
deviation, and we can use the `traverse`

function to walk over each coordinate.

Note that we pass a `mwc-random`

RNG - the value with type `Gen RealWorld`

- to
the `propose`

function. We need to supply this generator anywhere we want to
generate random numbers, but we don’t need to manually worry about tracking and
updating its state. The `IO`

monad will do that for us. The resulting
randomly-generated values will be tagged with `IO`

, so we’ll need to deal with
that appropriately.

### Step Two

Now let’s implement point (2):

Compare your present altitude to the altitude of that point you picked. Calculate a probability based on their ratio.

So, we need a function that will compare the altitude of our current point to the altitude of a proposed point and compute a probability from that. The following will do: it takes a function that will compute a (log-scale) altitude for us, as well as the current and proposed locations, and returns a probability.

```
moveProbability :: ([Double] -> Double) -> [Double] -> [Double] -> Double
moveProbability altitude current proposed =
whenNaN 0 (exp (min 0 (altitude proposed - altitude current)))
where
whenNaN val x
| isNaN x = val
| otherwise = x
```

### Step Three

Finally, the third step of the algorithm:

Flip a coin where the chance of observing a head is equal to that probability. If you get a head, move to the location you picked. Otherwise stay put.

So let’s get to it:

```
decide :: [Double] -> [Double] -> Double -> Gen RealWorld -> IO [Double]
decide current proposed prob rng = do
accept <- MWC.bernoulli prob rng
return $
if accept
then proposed
else current
```

Here we need to flip a coin, so we require a source of randomness again. The
`decide`

function thus takes another generator of type `Gen RealWorld`

that we
then supply to the `MWC.bernoulli`

function, and the result - the final
location - is once again wrapped in `IO`

.

This function clearly demonstrates the typical way that you’ll deal with random
numbers in Haskell code. `decide`

is a monadic function, so it proceeds using
do-notation. When you need to generate a random value - here we generate a
random `True`

or `False`

value according to a Bernoulli distribution - you bind
the result to a name using the `<-`

symbol. Then afterwards, in the scope of
the function, you can use the bound value as if it were pure. But the entire
function must still return a ‘wrapped-up’ value that makes the effect of
passing the generator explicit at the type level; right here, that means that
the value will be wrapped up in `IO`

.

### Putting Everything Together

The final Metropolis transition is a combination of steps one through three. We can put them together like so:

```
metropolis :: ([Double] -> Double) -> [Double] -> Gen RealWorld -> IO [Double]
metropolis altitude current rng = do
proposed <- propose current rng
let prob = moveProbability altitude current proposed
decide current proposed prob rng
```

Again, `metropolis`

is monadic, so we start off with a `do`

to make monadic
programming easy on us. Whenever we need a random value, we bind the result of
a random number-returning function using the `<-`

notation.

The `propose`

function returns a random location, so we bind its result to the
name `proposed`

using the `<-`

symbol. The `moveProbability`

function, on the
other hand, is pure - so we bind that using a `let prob = ...`

expression. The
`decide`

function returns a random value, so we can just plop it right on the
end here. The entire result of the `metropolis`

function is random, so it is
wrapped up in `IO`

.

The result of `metropolis`

is just a single transition of the Metropolis
algorithm, which involves doing this kind of thing over and over. If we do
that, we observe a bunch of points that trace out a particular realization of a
Markov chain, which we can generate as follows:

```
chain
:: Int -> ([Double] -> Double) -> [Double] -> Gen RealWorld -> IO [[Double]]
chain epochs altitude origin rng = loop epochs [origin] where
loop n history@(current:_)
| n <= 0 = return history
| otherwise = do
next <- metropolis altitude current rng
loop (n - 1) (next:history)
```

### An Example

Now that we have our `chain`

function, we can use it to trace out a collection
of points visited on a realization of a Markov chain. Remember that we’re
supposed to be wandering over some particular abstract landscape; here, let’s
stroll over the one defined by the following function:

```
landscape :: [Double] -> Double
landscape [x0, x1] =
-0.5 * (x0 ^ 2 * x1 ^ 2 + x0 ^ 2 + x1 ^ 2 - 8 * x0 - 8 * x1)
```

What we’ll now do is pick an origin to start from, wander over the landscape
for some number of steps, and then print the resulting realization of the
Markov chain to stdout. We’ll do all that through the following `main`

function:

```
main :: IO ()
main = do
rng <- MWC.createSystemRandom
let origin = [-0.2, 0.3]
trace <- chain 1000 landscape origin rng
mapM_ print trace
```

Running that will dump a trace to stdout. If you clean it up and plot it, you’ll see that the visited points have traced out a rough approximation of the landscape:

## Fini

Hopefully this gives a broad idea of how to go about using random numbers in Haskell. I’ve talked about:

- Why randomness in Haskell isn’t as simple as randomness in (say) Python or R.
- How to handle randomness in Haskell, either by manual generator management or by offloading that job to a monad.
- How to get thing done when a monad manages the generator for you - separating random number generation from random number processing.
- Doing all the above with an industrial-strength RNG, using a simple Metropolis algorithm as an example.

Hopefully the example gives you an idea of how to work with random numbers in practice.

I’ll be the first to admit that randomness in Haskell requires more work than
randomness in a language like R, which to this day remains my go-to interactive
data analysis language of choice. Using randomness effectively in Haskell
requires a decent understanding of how to *work with* monadic code, even if one
doesn’t quite understand monads entirely yet.

What I can say is that when one has developed some intuition for monads - acquiring a ‘feel’ for how to work with monadic functions and values - the difficulty and awkwardness drop off a bit, and working with randomness feels no different than working with any other effect.

Happy generating! I’ve dumped the code for the Metropolis example into a gist.

For a more production-quality Metropolis sampler, you can check out my mighty-metropolis library, which is a member of the declarative suite of MCMC algos.